Beckingham, S. (2015a). What is Twitter? Retrieved Dec 12, 2015, from Social Media for Learning: http://socialmediaforlearning.com/twitter/

Brief glossary of twitter terms, top tips on getting the most out of Twitter and the ‘power of ReTweeting’.

Budge, K., Lemon, N., & McPherson, M. (2016). Academics who tweet: ‘messy’ identities in academia. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 8 (2).

This a short but very useful article. It looks at the experience of three academics/artists asking them what mitivated them to use Twitter. How and why they use it and what have they learnt from their experience of using it. This is then followed by some discussion based around three themes; Connection, accessibility and approachability, Being and behaving and finally, messiness and risk taking.

Carpenter, J., & Krutka, D. (2014). How and why educators use Twitter: A survey of the field. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(4).

The article looks first at the literature of how Twitter is used for communication, for classroom activities and teachers professional development. A Online survey was sent to educators via Twitter over a 40 day period in 2013 and they got 755 respondants. The results from the survey indicated it was mainly used for PD especially for acquiring/sharing resources and conntecting with digital colleagues. 

Cole, K. (2015). “It’s like she’s eager to be verbally abused”: Twitter, trolls, and (en)gendering disciplinary rhetoric. Feminist Media Studies, 15(2), 356-358.

Short article on how ‘violent anti-feminist engagement in social media functions as a disciplinary rhetoric’.

Costello E., Brown M., Nair B., Nic Giolla Mhichíl M., Zhang J., Lynn T. (2017) #MOOC Friends and Followers: An Analysis of Twitter Hashtag Networks. In: Delgado Kloos C., Jermann P., Pérez-Sanagustín M., Seaton D., White S. (eds) Digital Education: Out to the World and Back to the Campus. EMOOCs 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 10254. Springer, Cham

This study uses Social Network Analysis to annalyse the hashtag #MOOC it doesnt find any surprising results (the follow network was larger than the reply network) but is a good example how social media analytics can be used. 

Darling, E., Shiffman, D., Côté, I., & Drew, J. (2013). The role of Twitter in the life cycle of a scientific publication. Retrieved 4/4/17, from PeerJ Preprints: https://peerj.com/preprints/16/

This looks at how Twitter can be used to generate ideas for a publication, how it can influence the editing and writing up of the manuscript and then publicising the article. its also looks at the pros and cons of this process.

Dunlap, J., & Lowenthal, P. (2009). Tweeting the night away: Using Twitter to enhance social presence. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2), 129

This article argues that for online teaching to be effective there must be a social presence in the teaching. First the authors look at social presence theory and then they look at how Twitter can be used to enhance the social presence on a course. They look at the potential benefits of using Twitter (and some of the disadvantages) and suggest some guidelines for others who might be interested in using twitter on their course.

Fransman, J. (2013). Researching academic literacy practices around Twitter: performative methods and their onto-ethical implications. In R. Goodfellow , & M. Lea, Literacy in the Digital University: Critical Perspectives on Learning, Scholarship, and Technology (pp. 27-41). London:: Routledge,.

This study looks at three different methods of collecting Twitter data (at the OU), highlighting what is included or ‘Othered’ in the data collected: first, a interactive visualisation tool showed academics their own and colleagues Twitter data. Secondly, a survey was used to collect academics opinions about Twitter. Finally a ethnographic case study was developed around the study. The notion of what is being ‘Othered’ is the basis of the methodology critique of these three approaches.  There were significant tensions between these three approaches that are played out at an individual, group, institutional and technological level.

Gallop, N. (2014). Can Twitter transform teachers? Conference Common Room, 51(3), p. 13.

Short article by an Assistant Head Teacher noting that twitter is becoming more important for CPD activitties and information in schools.

Gerstein, J. (2011). The Use of Twitter for Professional Growth and Development. International Journal on E-Learning, 10(3), 273-276.

Ha! IOE library showing only a printed version availble !!!

Holmes, K., Preston, G., Shaw, K., & Buchanan, R. (2013, August). ‘Follow’ Me: Networked
Professional Learning for Teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38(12).

Holmes, K. 2914. What Twitter offer teachers: The evidence. http://www.aare.edu.au/blog/?p=564

 This a blog post. It looks at hoe 30 ‘leading educators are using Twitter. It looked at the content of their Tweets and then out their Tweets into several different categories to make some broad points: It is a filter for Educational content, it facilitates positive supportive contact between teachers but not ustained converstauions, the majority of hastag posts contain educational links, Twitter offers conections with like minded educators, it gives the user ‘total control’. In summary , “These online interactions don’t replace the significance of face to face collaborations and discussions with colleagues, but the findings from this study indicate that they can be a valuable alternate means of professional self-development”.

Jordan, K. (2014). Academics and their online networks: Exploring the role of academic social networking sites. First Monday, 19(11).

This article Social Network analysis to look at three networking sites used by academics; Academia.edu, Mendeley and Zotero. This research sought to explore network structure in these sites, and to explore trends in network structure by surveying participants about their use of sites and motivations for making connections. ‘Social network analysis revealed that discipline was influential in defining community structure, while academic seniority was linked to the position of nodes within the network. The survey revealed a contradiction between academics use of the sites and their position within the networks the sites foster. Junior academics were found to be more active users of the sites, agreeing to a greater extent with the perceived benefits, yet having fewer connections and occupying a more peripheral position in the network’.

Kimmons, R., & Veletsianos, G. (2014). The fragmented educator 2.0: Social networking sites, acceptable identity fragments, and the identity constellation. Computers & Education, 72, 292-301.

This article looks at the relationship between the educator Social Network Site (mainly Facebook) participation and their identity. The emergent theory arising from this study suggests that teaches in this study view their identities as a constellation of interconnected fragments which the authors call ‘acceptable identity fragments’ (AIF). This online identity is mainly but exclusively authentic, it is transitional and socially constructed but also incomplete. This is in turn can be related to how academic present their identity on Twitter.


Kop, R. (2010). Using social media to create a place that supports communication. In G. Veletsianos, Emerging Technologies in Distance Education (pp. 269-283). Athabasca: AU Press.

No online version…copy in IOE library

Krutk, D., & Carpenter, J. (2014). Engagement through microblogging: educator professional development via Twitter. Professional Development in Education, 41 (4) 707-728.

This research article is a summary of  a survey of K–16 educators (in the US) regarding their use of Twitter for professional development. Lots of good references to online PD. Respondents described multifaceted and intense use, with PD activities more common than use with students and families. This paper delves into qualitative data from 494 respondents who described their perspectives on Twitter PD. Results; Twitter good for Information and knowledge sharing, twitter chats, relationships and community, antidote to isolation. Some limitations are also discussed.

Lupton, D. (2014). ‘Feeling Better Connected’: Academics’ Use of Social Media. News & Media Research Centre, University of Canberra. Canberra: University of Canberra.

To do…not found

Marwick, A., & boyd, d. (2010). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media Society, XX(X), 1-20

This article investigates how Tweeters imagine their auidences when they tweet and and how they construct their own online identity. The imagined audience affects how people Tweet – striking a Balance and self-censorship to construct an Networked Audience (see also Walter Ong 1975).

McPherson, M., Budge, K., & Lemon, N. (2015). New practices in doing academic development: Twitter as an informal learning space. International Journal for Academic Development, 20(2), 126-136.

The article presents three cases of academics who use twitter in different ways: building networks for academics, enhancing information flows, inspiring thinking and motivating academic practice. It argues that the informal nature of learning on twitter allows ideas to be contested and developed and that this will benefit academic developers.

Mollett, A., Moran, D., & Dunleavy, P. (2011). Using Twitter in university research, teaching and impact activities. Retrieved 12/9/17, from LSE Public Policy Group: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/files/2011/11/Published-Twitter_Guide_Sept_2011.pdf

LSE guide for academics.

O’ Keeffe, M. (2016) Exploring higher education professionals’ use of Twitter for learning. Irish Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning Vol 2, Issue 1, 2016. Retrieved 17.08.17 http://journal.ilta.ie/index.php/telji/article/view/11/20

This case study explores how eight HE professionals engaged with Twitter to develop their own professional practice. It uses the Visitor and Resident typology and Wenger’s (1998) concepts of  participation and non-participations to catorgorise the professionals and then looks at how they use Twitter. The study focuses on just three of the profesionals and the data indicates a variety of types of engagement from observation and lurking to social communication and collaboration with other educators. 

It suggests that “Further research is necessary to tease out answers and reasons pertaining to preferences of some research participants for non-participation or peripheral particiation on Twitter”. The next phase of research will focus on the “barriers, enablers and implications of using Twitter for professional practice”.


Pasquini, L. (2015). Twitter to Enhance Learning & Performance. Retrieved 4/4/17, from Techknowtools: https://techknowtools.wordpress.com/2015/04/09/twitter-learning-performance/

Blog post of some useful hashtags, TweeterChats and links.

Pataraia, N., Margaryan, A., Falconer , I., & Littlejohn, A. (2015). How and what do academics learn through their personal networks? Journal of Further and Higher Education, 39(3), 336–357

This article based on 11 interviews looks at how academics use their personal networks to develop their professional development and their teaching practice 

Pearce, N., Weller, M., Scanlon, E., & Kinsley, S. (2010). Digital Scholarship Considered: How New Technologies Could Transform Academic Work. In education, 16(1). Retrieved 4/4/17 from in education: http://ineducation.ca/ineducation/article/view/44

This article discusses the impact of digital technolgies and socialmedia on each of Boyer’s (1990) dimensions of scholarship – discovery, integration, application and teaching. Note to myself chack out Bower’s origianl article. It suggests more open ways of working are now possible – but inevitable.

Rinaldo, S., Tapp, S., & Laverie, D. (2011, July). Learning by Tweeting: Using Twitter as a Pedagogical Tool. Journal of Marketing Education, 1–11.

The authors argue that Twitter has many benefits for marketing educators who are interested in engaging students in experiential learning. In a real-time environment for student learning, professors may use Twitter for direct communication with students to generate discussion and interest in the course topics and examples. Just as marketers use Twitter to generate interest, discussion, and brand image, educators can use Twitter to generate this interest in a course through social media. 

Salmon, G., Ross, B., Pechenkina, E., & Chase, A. (2015). The space for social media in structured online learning. Research in Learning Technology, 23.

This article explores the benefits of using social media (Twiiter and FB) in an online educational setting,  by participants in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) developed to enable educators to learn about the Carpe Diem learning design process. iT concludes that “some participants benefitted from social media by crediting it, for example, with networking and knowledge-sharing opportunities, others objected or refused to engage with social media, perceiving it as a waste of their time”.

Skyring, C. (2013). Learning in 140 characters: Microblogging for Professional Learning. Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Faculty of Education, Brisbane. Retrieved 4/4/17, from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65854/1/Carol_Skyring_Thesis.pdf

The purpose of the PhD thesis was to investigate how Twitter was being employed by educators to support their professional learning. Through a qualitative research design, that is, an exploratory case study using content analysis, an online survey, and interviews, the study examined activities and perceptions of a group of educators in order to provide an insight into how and why they engage in Twitter and the value they place on Twitter as a professional learning tool.

NOTE: Need to go back and look at Lt Review in more detail.

Stewart, B. (2015a). In public: The shifting consequences of Twitter scholarship. Retrieved from Hybrid Pedagogy: http://www.digitalpedagogylab.com/hybridped/in-public-the-shiftingconsequences-of-twitter-scholarship

Blog post

Stewart, B (2015). Open to Influence: What Counts as Academic Influence in Scholarly Networked “Twitter” Participation. Learning, Media and Technology, 2015, Vol.40(3), p.287-309


Stewart, B. (2016a). Academic Twitter: The intersection of orality & literacy in scholarship. Retrieved from London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE): https://youtu.be/e4RSaG2iVKk

Video of Bonnie Stewart talking digital identity of scholars esp regarding Twitter.

Stewart, B. (2016b). Collapsed publics: Orality, literacy, and vulnerability in academic Twitter. Journal of Applied Social Theory, 1(1), 61-86.

Veletsianos, G. (2012). Higher education scholars’ participation and practices on Twitter. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(4), 336-349.

Empirical study based on 45 HE lecturers who have more than 2000 followers. The purpose of the study find out how twitter is being used by these scholars in HE.  It concluded that they used Twitter for 7 main reason: sharing information/media/resources useful for teaching, expanding learning beyond the classroom, requesting assistance and offering suggestions, living social public lives, professional digital identity, networking, presence across multiple online networks. There are some limitations of this article are they are not a representative sample of all lecturers using Twitter in HE but a selection of early adopters who use Twitter quite extensively.

Veletsianos, G. (2013). Open practices and identity: Evidence from researchers and educators’ social media participation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(3), 639-651.

Veletsianos, G. & Stewart, B. (2016). Discreet Openess: Scholar’s Selective and International Self-Disclosure Obline. Social Media & Society. Last accessed 18.09.17 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2056305116664222

This article addresses the identified gap in the literature – how scholars present personal and professional issues on SM. So what sort of personal things do they reveal on SM? examples incude illness, identity, personal life events. Also why they reveal such information – results indicate that they do so often for many reasons but they ofton have tactical motives for doing so.

Vigurs, K. (2016). Using Twitter to Tackle Peripherality? Facilitating networked scholarship for part-time doctoral students within and beyond the university. Retrieved from Fusion Journal : http://www.fusion-journal.com/008-fusion-professional-education-in-the-e-learning-world-scholarship-practice-and-digital-technologies/

Drawing on Lave and Wenger’s theory of legitimate peripheral participation, and building particularly on the work of Teeuwsen et al. (2014), this paper suggests that the use of social media in doctoral education can be one way for part-time doctoral students to migrate from a position of academic peripherality to one of legitimate peripheral participation in a wider research community.

Webster, H. (2014). #10 Ten Days of Twitter . Retrieved March 30, 2015, from Teaching Twitter for Academics: https://10daysoftwitter.wordpress.com/2014/07/01/10dot-is-one-year-old/

Details about Twitter course